Important Information About Lithium-Ion Batteries

We can meet the energy we need in every aspect of our lives from batteries, one of the energy storage systems. In this context, batteries can store electrical energy by converting it to electrochemical energy and enable us to use this stored energy as electrical energy whenever desired. This process, which started with the Baghdad battery, became concrete with Volta batteries and today leaves its place to lithium ion batteries with their high efficiency. Lithium-ion batteries, which have many advantages such as long life and high energy capacity, distinguish themselves from other batteries today due to these superiorities.

Batteries, which provide great advantages by storing energy despite the increasing energy demand today, are divided into two as primary batteries and secondary batteries according to their chemical properties. The chemical components of primary and secondary batteries contain various metals such as lithium, cadmium, mercury, nickel, silver, zinc, manganese and lead.

-Primary batteries are non-rechargeable batteries, in other words, batteries that cannot be charged and reused when the chemical energy inside is depleted. These batteries are also called dry cells and are named according to the material they contain. Zinc batteries, alkaline batteries, lithium batteries, etc. There are varieties including. Primary batteries are disposable batteries, although they offer a quick solution in case of need. In addition, deformations occur in the structure of batteries since their production. For this, when choosing a battery, the production and expiry date should be checked.

-Secondary batteries are rechargeable batteries. They store chemical energy and convert this chemical energy into electrical energy when needed. They have a long service life as they can be charged. Secondary batteries, which we encounter in many areas today, attract attention due to their superior properties in portable electronic and electrical devices. In addition, secondary batteries, which provide uninterrupted power supply, increase the device's durability. When the energy stored in the battery is depleted, it continues to be used effectively by being fed from the mains. There are many types such as nickel cadmium (NiCd), nickel metalhydride (NiMH), lithium ion (Li-ion), lithium polymer (Li-polymer).


What is a Lithium-Ion Battery?

Lithium, the third smallest atom after hydrogen and helium, is located in group 1A in the periodic table, which includes alkali metals, and its atomic number is 3. The characteristic of group 1A elements is their tendency to donate electrons and be positively charged. Apart from these properties, lithium is the most suitable element to be used for batteries, since it has the largest electrochemical potential among all metal elements and has a high energy density per weight.

Lithium-ion batteries have an advantage over other batteries in terms of energy density. In addition, when compared to other batteries, they have a longer life, have higher energy storage capacities at the same volume or weight, and require less maintenance. Lithium-ion batteries can be used in mobile phones, tablets, laptops and small household appliances, as well as in electric cars and helicopters, as they are physically more durable due to their structure. In addition to these advantages, there are disadvantages such as deterioration at high temperatures.

Lithium-ion battery variants are rechargeable. Lithium-ion batteries contain electrodes, carbon and metal oxides, and the electrolyte is a lithium salt solution. These batteries are a type of battery that is popular and used in many areas due to the high power they provide compared to their weight and size. The inside of a lithium-ion battery; It consists of 3 basic parts: cathode, anode and separator plate.

When the battery is charged, the electrically charged lithium atoms collect in the carbon layer, and when removed from the charge, the electrons head towards the cathode. During the realization of this cycle within itself, electromagnetic power emerges. The density of liquid lithium is only half that of water. Lithium is the lightest metal in its solid state. However, the tendency of lithium to donate electrons and be positively charged is one of the most important factors in its use in batteries.

Advantages of Lithium-Ion Batteries

-It has high energy density (it gives more energy per unit area). There is a potential to reach higher densities with R&D studies.

-Maintenance is low, periodic charge-discharge is not required for the continuity of its performance.

-It is long lasting.

-It can work in a wide operating temperature range (10°C to +55°C).

-The rate of self-discharge is low.

-It can be fast charged.

-It has high energy efficiency.

Disadvantages of Lithium-Ion Batteries

- Its cost is higher than other batteries.

- Total charge-discharge life is low.

- Battery system circuit should be used to keep current and voltage at safe limits during charge-discharge.

- They can deteriorate at high temperatures.

- Capacity loss may occur after overcharging.

- Even if it is not used, its capacity decreases from the day it is produced.

Lithium Ion Battery Usage Areas

Lithium-ion batteries, which are given to you by changing and developing technology, are among the battery types used in many of the technology-related areas in your life. The many advantages it offers are an important factor in the widespread use of this battery type. Lithium-ion battery uses include many products such as mobile phones, laptops, small household appliances, tablets and electric vehicles. Lithium-ion batteries; They are among the popular battery types due to their important advantages such as light weight, maximum filling, small and portable. Today, the field of use is gradually expanding.


Use of Lithium-Ion Batteries in Electric Cars

In recent years, the use of electric vehicles has been increasing rapidly with increasing concerns about global warming and greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, rechargeable batteries are used as a promising alternative power source in electric vehicles. Lithium-ion batteries have many advantages.
- High rated voltage
- High energy density
- Long life
- Lightweight and portable construction
- Can be used without fully charging
Because of these features, lithium-ion battery types are among the battery types used extensively in electric cars. The most important difference and privilege from other rechargeable battery types is that it has high energy density. However, in addition to all these advantages, there is also the danger of explosion of lithium-ion batteries. Very detailed and different researches are carried out in order to take the features of lithium-ion batteries, which is expressed as the technology of the future, to a higher level and to end their disadvantages.
In the light of this information, lithium-ion batteries will be used more and the working areas will be expanded, especially with the researches in the future.