Sea waters contain various salts and the salt content is generally 3.5%. Seawater is a natural electrolyte with a high salt concentration and is one of the most corrosive (naturally corrosive) environments. In places close to the marine environment, especially where metal components are present, the possibility of corrosion should not be ignored. Lamps to be used in lighting must be resistant to corrosion. The use of anti-corrosion lamps should be the first priority when implementing the lighting project in the marine environment.
Why Does Sea Water Cause Corrosion?
Electrochemical corrosion is corrosion caused by the chemical action of metal in a conductive liquid medium. Seawater corrosion is one of the most common electrochemical corrosions. Seawater contains a certain amount of oxygen, and seawater is accepted as an electrolyte solution. Docks, coastal roads, coastal areas, ships, etc. Lamps used in places are very prone to electrochemical corrosion. They accompany electron transfer during corrosion. Electrons move much more easily in salt water than in pure water. This is the main reason for corrosion caused by sea water.
So what factors should be considered when choosing?
-Lamp Body Material
Not all metals corrode severely when exposed to seawater. If we give an example from aluminum, it does not corrode since it can react with oxygen in the air to form alumina on its surface. Thanks to the alumina on the surface, it insulates the water and oxygen in the air and prevents the inner aluminum material from reacting excessively, providing both anti-corrosion and durability. At the same time, aluminum has good thermal conductivity and fast heat dissipation. Suitable for powerful lamps used for large container berths. Also, metallic aluminum is a perfectly suitable material for lighthouses.
-The Importance of Coating
Coating is an effective method to prevent corrosion. It isolates the surface of the base material and the factors affecting electrochemical corrosion and can form a protective layer on the material surface. When choosing lamps for projects near the sea, you should make sure that the base material of the fixture is protected by a coating.
-IP Rating of Fixture Structure
All luminaires located near the sea are exposed to humid and salty air for a long time. Luminaires must have a very good waterproof rating. Because seawater molecules in the air penetrate into the lamps very easily. In addition, LEDs are semiconductor components and if salt water penetrates, it will damage the components of the luminaire. It causes corrosion of internal components, so waterproofing is very important. A good “IP rating” is an important consideration to ensure long-term, stable and smooth operation of luminaires in the marine environment.
In general, outdoor fixtures generate a lot of heat after being lit for a certain period of time. This heat then causes the interior air to swell and the air to be discharged from the lamp. After the lamps are turned off, during cooling, a suction will first form inside the lamp and the outside air will attract water vapor and dust to the lamp. For this reason, outdoor fixtures are generally equipped with pressurized ventilation. When the luminaires operate in close proximity to the marine environment, the risk of infiltration due to sea water vapor will also be higher.
-Salt Spray Test Report of Luminaires Salt spray test, which is an important test to evaluate the corrosion resistance of luminaires, shows the corrosion resistance of the designed lamps. It can be used as a reference standard for lamp selection in seaside lighting projects.
Piers are the points where the sea and land intersect. At these points, the salinity rate is high, so when lighting the pier, the lamps should be equipped with LED luminaires with high efficiency, low energy consumption and anti-corrosion performance.
Coastal roads have special environmental characteristics. As is known, the most important problem is marine corrosion. Therefore, corrosion prevention should be given priority. Afterwards, good lighting is required as there will be traffic flow on the coastal road. Since the traffic flow will continue especially at night, the visibility of the lighting should be done in suitable conditions and using enough lamps. Otherwise, it may cause traffic accidents.
Good lighting in entertainment areas on the seashore is very important for both businesses and people. It will extend the entertainment time of people in those regions, and will also enable them to see the beauty of the sea and feel safe at night.
There are various lamps and fixtures on the ships and one of them is LED lamps. On ships sailing for long periods of time, lamps are naturally affected by sea temperature, humidity and the salinity of sea water. Therefore, each lamp to be selected should have high anti-corrosion effects. This is a very important aspect for maximum efficiency and also ensures an extended replacement frequency.