Lighting for Golf Courses 

Golf is played outdoors and in large green areas. For this sport to be played at night, a really large area needs to be illuminated. Golf courses do not have a standard field size like football, basketball or volleyball. Therefore, the lighting design of golf courses is designed according to the size of the course itself. All calculations for golf courses are made in computer environment and then the application is made with the help of a topographer. Working in the sub-discipline of cartography, the topographer is responsible for using various scientific measurements to create maps of the earth's surface and visualize the data. They collect, analyze and interpret geographic information provided by geodetic surveys, aerial photographs and satellite data.

Luminaires are generally mounted on poles 18 meters high. These lighting poles must be equipped with protection systems against lightning hazards. These poles, which should be placed in a way and at distances that will not affect the game, should be painted in colors suitable for the region to reduce their visibility in daytime games. When it is necessary to intervene in these poles with hydraulic systems in case of any adverse situation, the poles are tilted to reach the armature and the necessary operations are carried out safely.

Golf course lighting plays a critical role in ensuring safety, comfort and efficiency for golfers during play. To achieve the best results, it is necessary to adhere to specific lighting standards and requirements that apply to different areas of the course. Here are some important considerations to take into account to optimize your golf course lighting system; 

Tee areas: 100 LUX horizontal illumination and 100 LUX vertical illumination is required to see the direction, landing point and distance of the ball. Lighting design for tee areas use wide angle floodlights to avoid strong shadows and project light at close range. The nearest lamp post should be 5 meters away and the light should be projected from two directions. Lighting poles in the tee area should be set away from the ball hitting area and in such a way that the player's shadow does not cast on the ground. Vertical light measurements need to be well adjusted so that the ball can be followed by the player and spectators after the ball's first exit.
Fairways and hazards: 70 LUX horizontal illumination is required to see the path of the ball. On fairways, all luminaires should be pointed in the direction of the ball's movement to avoid glare and allow the player to follow the ball in the air. The expected ball, drop and shot points should be determined according to the number of strokes of the golf game courses and should be fully reflected in the lighting design. Slopes on the courses should be closely controlled and included in the design.

Green areas: 200 LUX horizontal lighting is required to accurately assess the height, slope and distance of the site. Lighting design for fairways: Use narrow-angle floodlights to ensure sufficient vertical illumination and uniform illumination during the flight of the golf ball. In the green areas, wider angles and higher illumination levels than in other areas should be provided. The last place where the ball lands should be easily observed. It is important to position the lighting poles so that the light reflected from the ground does not adversely affect the player's eyes.

Dead zones and glare: Avoid lighting dead zones over the entire golf course area and eliminate glare that can hinder golfers.

Enhanced safety: Proper lighting allows golfers to see the course clearly, reducing the risk of injury and accidents. 

Improved performance: Optimum lighting allows golfers to accurately judge the direction, distance and landing point of the ball, resulting in better performance.

Increased efficiency: With better visibility, golfers can play more efficiently and complete their rounds faster.  
The color rendering and color temperature of the light sources used should be such that the entire course, the players and any objects appear as they really are in daylight. Lighting should be designed in such a way that residential areas, pedestrians and drivers outside the pitch are not adversely affected. In addition, it is very important that the light escaping is at a value that does not disturb the natural life in the region and that the whole system works silently. 

The benefits of these lighting systems can be listed as follows; playing golf at night provides an unforgettable experience for both players and spectators. If the days are short in the city where the game is played, it allows more players to complete the game. In the summer months, instead of playing during the day when it is very hot, it provides the opportunity to play in cooler weather in the evening. It also allows working at night for field maintenance when necessary.